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          秦趙長平之戰之謎:發生紙上談兵悲劇的原因何在

          發布時間:2019-05-29 類別:歷史名戰

          成語紙上談兵,經常用于形容長平之戰失利的趙括。據《史記-廉頗藺相如列傳》記載:戰國時趙國名將趙奢的兒子趙括,年輕時學兵法,談起兵事來父親也難不倒他。后來他接替廉頗成為趙將,在長平之戰中,只知道根據兵書辦,不知道變通,貿然進攻,結果被秦軍打敗。

          趙括從年輕的時候起就學習兵法,談論用兵打仗的事,認為天下沒有人能夠抵擋他。(趙括)曾經跟他的父親趙奢議論過用兵打仗的事,趙奢不能駁倒(他),但是(趙奢)不承認他有軍事才能。趙括的母親問趙奢其中的原因,趙奢說:打仗是要以命相搏的事,但是趙括把它說得輕而易舉。假使趙國不讓趙括做將軍也就算了,如果一定要他擔任將軍,那么毀掉趙國軍隊的一定是趙括。等到趙括將要起程的時候,他母親上書給趙王說:趙括不可以做將軍。

          趙括代替了廉頗(擔任抗趙大將)后,全部更改(原有的)紀律和規定,并撤換重新安排軍官。秦將白起聽說了這件事后,便派出引誘趙括做出錯誤判斷的小股部隊,佯裝失敗,卻斷絕他的糧道,分段兩軍,士卒的士氣大亂。四十多天后,軍隊士兵饑餓,趙括帶領精銳的兵士親自上陣戰斗。秦軍射死了趙括。趙括的軍隊大敗,于是幾十萬兵士投降于秦軍,秦軍把他們全部活埋了。

          年幼時在其父趙奢的影響下熟讀兵書、能言善辯,卻無實戰經驗。趙孝成王六年(前260年),趙國中秦國的反間計,用趙括代替廉頗為將。上任后便改守為攻,在長平(今山西高平西北)主動引兵出擊,被秦軍包圍。期間曾組織多次突圍,但均不成功。在被圍46天后,趙括在突圍時失蹤(司馬遷認為可能是畏罪潛逃)。40余萬趙兵只得投降,后被秦將白起全部坑殺。此役為著名的長平之戰。

          趙括因戰敗而斷送40余萬將士性命和趙國前途而成為千古笑柄,其事跡成為成語紙上談兵。

          據《史記-廉頗藺相如列傳》等記載,長平之戰前,趙括之母上書趙王,說趙括不能為將,指出趙括在人品方面(并未提到能力)有問題,并說:王以為若其父乎?父子不同,執心各異。愿勿遣。然而趙王不聽,于是趙母問,如果趙括戰敗,自己是否可以不受株連,趙王同意了。但事后趙家還是遭到了報復,被滅族。

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